Diamond and graphite are two of the most common forms of carbon. Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring mineral and has the highest thermal conductivity of any material. It is also the most transparent material and is widely used in jewelry and other decorative objects. Graphite, on the other hand, is a soft, black, crystalline form of carbon. It is used as a lubricant and in pencils and other writing instruments.
The main difference between diamond and graphite is in their structure. Diamond is composed of carbon atoms that are arranged in a tetrahedral lattice, while graphite is composed of flat sheets of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. This difference in structure gives diamond its hardness and graphite its softness. The structure of diamond also gives it its high thermal conductivity and transparency, while the structure of graphite gives it its lubricating properties.
Diamond is also much denser than graphite, with a density of 3.52 g/cm3 compared to graphite's density of 2.26 g/cm3. Diamond is also much harder than graphite, with a Mohs hardness of 10 compared to graphite's hardness of 1. Diamond is also much more chemically inert than graphite, making it more resistant to corrosion.
In conclusion, diamond and graphite are two very different forms of carbon. Diamond is much harder, denser, and more chemically inert than graphite, giving it a range of uses from jewelry to industrial tools. Graphite, on the other hand, is soft, lightweight, and lubricating, making it useful for writing instruments and lubricants.