Calculating percentage is a mathematical concept that is used to express a number as a fraction of 100. It is a way to express a proportion or ratio of a number in relation to a whole. Percentages are often used in a variety of contexts, such as in finance, statistics, and education.

To calculate a percentage, you first need to understand the basic formula:

(Part/Whole) x 100 = Percentage

The part represents the number that you are trying to express as a percentage, while the whole represents the total number or value. To calculate the percentage, you divide the part by the whole and then multiply by 100.

For example, let's say you want to calculate the percentage of a test that a student scored. The student scored 60 out of 100 possible points. To calculate the percentage, you would use the formula as follows:

(60/100) x 100 = 60%

So, in this example, the student scored 60% on the test.

Another example, Let's say you want to calculate the percentage increase of your salary from $45,000 to $50,000. To calculate the percentage increase, you would use the formula as follows:

(Increase / Original) x 100 = Percentage Increase

(5000 / 45000) x 100 = 11.11%

So, the percentage increase of your salary is 11.11%

Percentages can also be converted to decimals by dividing the percentage by 100. For example, 50% is the same as 0.50 as a decimal. To convert a decimal to a percentage, you multiply the decimal by 100. For example, 0.50 as a decimal is the same as 50% as a percentage.

Percentages can also be used to calculate the proportion of a number in relation to another number. For example, if you want to calculate what percentage of a group of people are female, you would divide the number of females by the total number of people in the group and then multiply by 100.

It's also important to note that there are different ways to express percentages. For example, instead of saying "50%," you can also say "fifty percent" or "one half." And instead of saying "15%" you can say "fifteen hundredths"

Percentage also can be used to find the increase or decrease of a number, to find that we can use the following formula:

(New value - Original value) / Original value x 100 = Percentage increase or decrease

For example, If the price of a product was $100 and now it is $120, to find the percentage increase of the price, we can use the formula as follows:

(120 - 100) / 100 x 100 = 20%

So, the price of the product increased by 20%.

It's also important to note that while calculating percentage, it's important to be consistent with the units of measurement. If you are working with dollars, you should express your percentage in dollars as well.

In conclusion, calculating percentage is a mathematical concept that is used to express a number as a fraction of 100. It is a way to express a proportion or ratio of a number in relation to a whole. Percentages are often used in a variety of contexts, such as in finance, statistics, and education. To calculate a percentage, you need to use the basic formula: (Part/Whole) x 100 = Percentage, where the part represents the number that you are trying to express as a percentage, while the whole represents the total number or value